Journal Publications

  • Military Spending and Economic Growth in Turkey: A Wavelet Approach. Defence and Peace Economics (Online First). (with Olivier Habimana) (link)
  • Armed Conflict, Military Expenditure and International Tourism. Tourism Economics. 2019. (with Luke Emeka Okafor and Nusrate Aziz). (link) (Full text can be viewed here)
  • The Effects of Economic and Financial Crises on International Tourist Flows: A Cross-Country Analysis. Journal of Travel Research. 2019. (with Muhammad Shafiullah and Luke Emeka Okafor). (link) (Full text can be viewed here)
  • Are Capitalists Green? Firm-ownership and Provincial CO2 Emissions in China. 2018. Energy Policy, 123, 349-359. (with Fredrik N.G. Andersson and Sonja Opper) (link)
  • Armed Conflict, Military Expenses and FDI Inflow to Developing Countries. 2019. Defence and Peace Economics, 30(2), 238-251. (with Nusrate Aziz) (link)
  • Determinants of International Tourism Demand: Evidence from Australian States and Territories. Tourism Economics. 2018. (with Muhammad Shafiullah and Luke Emeka Okafor) (link) (Full text can be viewed here)
  • Common Unofficial Language, Development and International Tourism. 2018. Tourism Management, 67,  127-138. (with Luke Emeka Okafor and Terence Then) (link)
  • The Effect of Trade and Political Institutions on Economic Institutions. 2017. The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 26(1), 89-110. (link)

Research Projects

  • Risk preference and choice of career: the role of subjective wellbeing, religiosity and social values. 2019-2020.
    Funded By: Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS), Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. RM 80,000.
    PI: Usman Khalid
    This research project aims to analyze the relationship between subjective well-being/life satisfaction, entrepreneurial attitudes and risk averseness in Malaysia in the light of ethnolinguistic fractionalization in the country.

Working Papers

  • Catch-up in Institutional Quality: An Empirical Assessment. 2016. CREDIT Research Paper No. 16/04. (link)

Conference Papers

  • Are capitalists green? Firm ownership and provincial CO2 emissions in China. 2015. Asian Economic Panel, Lund, Sweden. (with Fredrik NG Andersson and Sonja Opper).


  • Essays on Institutions and Institutional Change. 2016. Lund Economic Studies, 191. (link) (Full text can be viewed here)

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